Session 5: Dan 7:13-14 / Mark 10:45
This section is really important for understanding why people in the NT seemed to miss Jesus' prophetic descriptions. The fact that he was using the OT ironically and even interpreting Daniel 7 through the lens of Isa 53 has a lot to do with his Messianic identity and why they were so slow of heart to believe. They were so entrenched in their own understanding that they couldn't see what Jesus was saying and doing, and essentially, how he was reinterpreting the texts around himself.
- Play: Session 5 Video
Dan 7:13-14 / Mark 10:45
- This section is really important for understanding why people in the NT seemed to miss Jesus' prophetic descriptions. The fact that he was using the OT ironically and even interpreting Daniel 7 through the lens of Isa 53 has a lot to do with his Messianic identity and, I think, why they were so slow of heart to believe. They were so entrenched in their own understanding that they couldn't see what Jesus was saying and doing, and essentially, how he was reinterpreting the texts around himself.
Every now and then, we'll come across something in Scripture that doesn't look like a quotation. That's what we find here.
- Explain differences between a quotation and an allusion.
- How, then, do we know it is an allusion?
Well, this actually fits several different criteria for an allusion. We won't walk through all of these specifically, but here's a list of ideas, all adapted from Richard B. Hays, in his book, Echoes of Scripture in the letters of Paul.
We can usually verify an allusion if the connection has: (Write on bottom)
- Similar Wording: There is significant overlap between words and/or phrases.
- Similar Themes: are there other references to the theme of the OT, and does it seem to fit in?
- In the immediate context, Jesus has predicted his death a third time. This is difficult for the disciples to understand.
- I think there are a couple of passages in mind here.
- Daniel 7:13-14 (TOP LEFT). Discuss context.
- Does it meet the criteria? I think yes, but we have some questions
- Isaiah 53:10-12 (TOP RIGHT). Read text.
- Does it meet the criteria? I think yes, but we have some questions.
Biblical Development: Daniel is so late, there is little here. However, we do see this image elsewhere of a suffering Messianic figure. Texts like Psalm 22, especially, seem to detail the pain and agony of the Messiah for the sake of the many.
If this is legitimate, Jesus is doing a couple of things. First, he is expressing Ironic Usage (The Old Testament is used ironically for the New Testament author's rhetorical purposes). This is because it does not happen in a way that is expected.
Notice: in Daniel 7, the Son of Man rules, and when one rules one is associated with the people. So, if the people suffer, it can be assumed that the Son of Man will also vicariously suffer with them. In this way, the Son of Man could be said to suffer.
This, however, seems to fit the Messianic reality. Do we serve Jesus, like the Son of Man is served in Daniel 7? Of course. However, we don't assume that means that Jesus doesn't serve us. Rather, he is turning their expectations on their head.
He is also doing Direct Prophetic Fulfillment. In this way, he is helping his audience see that this is coming true in him but not totally in a way that they would expect, and it will continue to be fulfilled in his death and resurrection.
Notice how tightly this is connected to the context of Mark 10...
- We can't miss the connection to the context of rulers, kings and kingdoms. This is the context of Daniel 7, and Jesus steps into the midst of that description of Gentile rulers (which, by the way, are the beasts of Dan 7) to purport that he is the one bringing a new world order.
If Jesus is the Son of Man from Daniel 7, and the Suffering Servant from Isa 53, then he is the servant. But he also becomes the Messiah, and the final, end-times age is being brought in his person, even in his death and resurrection. And that reality changes everything.
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